ProPM Logo About ProPM Initiate and Close   Integration Management Quality Management PMBOK ITTO Dictionary ProPM Logo
Process Benefits Plan management   Scope Management HR Management Input / Output Menu
Process Inputs Plan execution   Time Management Communications Management Input Menu
Tools and Techniques Execute   Cost Management Procurement Managment Tool and Technique Menu
Process Outputs Monitor and Control   Risk Management Stakeholder Managment Output Menu
       
               
  191     47 5 10  
  Inputs, Outputs, Tools & Techniques   Processes Phases Knowledge Areas  
             
Accepted deliverables Process Outputs 1 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
  Process Inputs 2 Close Project or Phase Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Acquisition Tools and Techniques 3 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
Activity attributes Process Outputs 2 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
  Activity cost estimates Process Outputs 1 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
  Process Outputs 1 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
    Process Inputs 6 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
ProPM Logo Process Inputs 7 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management ProPM Logo
Process Inputs 6 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment
Activity duration estimates Process Outputs 1 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management
  Process Inputs 7 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management
Process Inputs 8 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management
  Activity list Process Outputs 1 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 2 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 2 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 2 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 2 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
  Activity res.requirements Process Outputs 1 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
    Process Inputs 5 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 4 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 2 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
Process Inputs 4 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
  Add. Qual. Planning tools Tools and Techniques 7 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
  Advertising Tools and Techniques 5 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
  agreements Process Outputs 2 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
  Process Inputs 3 Develop Project Charter Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Process Inputs 8 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 3 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Alternative analysis Tools and Techniques 2 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
  Alternatives generation Tools and Techniques 3 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
  Analogous estimating Tools and Techniques 2 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
ProPM Logo Tools and Techniques 2 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Analytical techniques Tools and Techniques 2 Close Project or Phase Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Risk Management Plan management Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 6 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Tools and Techniques 3 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
  Approved change requests Process Outputs 1 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
    Process Inputs 2 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Process Inputs 5 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Inputs 4 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Approved CRs review Tools and Techniques 4 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
  Assumption analysis Tools and Techniques 4 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
  Basis of estimates Process Outputs 2 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 4 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
  Benchmarking Tools and Techniques 9 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
  Bidder conferences Tools and Techniques 1 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
  Bottom-up estimating Tools and Techniques 4 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
  business case Process Inputs 2 Develop Project Charter Monitor and Control Integration Management  
  Change control tools Tools and Techniques 3 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
  Change log Process Outputs 2 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
  Change Requests Process Inputs 3 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
  Process Outputs 3 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
ProPM Logo Process Outputs 1 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Outputs 2 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Outputs 2 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Outputs 3 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Process Outputs 3 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Process Outputs 1 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
Process Outputs 5 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Outputs 1 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Outputs 2 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Process Outputs 2 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Process Outputs 4 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 2 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 6 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 2 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
Process Outputs 2 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
  Checklist analysis Tools and Techniques 3 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
  Claims administration Tools and Techniques 6 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Closed procurements Process Outputs 1 Close Procurements Initiate and Close Procurement Managment  
  Colocation Tools and Techniques 5 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
  Comms requirements analysis Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
  Communication methods Tools and Techniques 3 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
  Communication models Tools and Techniques 2 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
ProPM Logo Communication technology Tools and Techniques 1 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
Communications Mgmt. Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
  Process Inputs 1 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Process Inputs 2 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
Conflict management Tools and Techniques 3 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Context diagrams Tools and Techniques 10 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
  Contingent response strategies Tools and Techniques 3 Plan Risk Management Plan execution Risk Management  
  Contract Change Control Sys. Tools and Techniques 1 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Cost aggregation Tools and Techniques 1 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
  Cost baseline Process Outputs 1 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
  Cost forecasts Process Outputs 2 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
    Process Inputs 3 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
  Cost Mgmt. Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Process Inputs 1 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 1 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 2 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 2 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Cost of quality Tools and Techniques 7 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
  Cost-benefit analysis Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
  Critical chain method Tools and Techniques 3 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
  Critical path method Tools and Techniques 2 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
  Data Gathering & Rep. Tech. Tools and Techniques 1 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Decomposition Tools and Techniques 1 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
ProPM Logo Deliverables Process Outputs 1 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Process Inputs 6 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Dependency determination Tools and Techniques 2 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Design of experiments Tools and Techniques 5 Plan Quality Management Plan execution Quality Management  
Diagramming Tech. Tools and Techniques 5 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Document analysis Tools and Techniques 11 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
  Documentation reviews Tools and Techniques 1 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
  Earned value Mgmt.  Tools and Techniques 1 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
  enterprise environmental factors Process Inputs 3 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Process Inputs 4 Develop Project Charter Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Process Inputs 6 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 4 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 3 Develop Project Management Plan Plan management Integration Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Process Inputs 4 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 12 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 9 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 7 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 6 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Process Inputs 6 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
Process Inputs 6 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
ProPM Logo Process Inputs 3 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Risk Management Plan management Risk Management  
Process Inputs 12 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 4 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 5 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 8 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 3 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
  Ent. Env. Factors updates Process Outputs 2 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Outputs 4 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
  expert judgment Tools and Techniques 1 Develop Project Charter Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Develop Project Management Plan Plan management Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Close Project or Phase Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
ProPM Logo Tools and Techniques 3 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Risk Management Plan management Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 7 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 6 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Plan Risk Responses Plan execution Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Tools and Techniques 4 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Tools and Techniques 2 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
Tools and Techniques 2 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
  Facilitated workshops Tools and Techniques 3 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
  facilitation techniques Tools and Techniques 2 Develop Project Charter Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Develop Project Management Plan Plan management Integration Management  
  Fin. prod., svs., or res. Process Outputs 1 Close Project or Phase Initiate and Close Integration Management  
  Focus groups Tools and Techniques 2 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
  Forecasting Tools and Techniques 2 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
  Funding limit reconciliation Tools and Techniques 5 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
  Ground rules Tools and Techniques 4 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Group creativity tech. Tools and Techniques 4 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
  Group dec. making tech. Tools and Techniques 2 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 10 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
ProPM Logo Historical relationships Tools and Techniques 4 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
HR Mgmt. Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
  Process Inputs 2 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 1 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 1 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 1 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 5 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
  Independant estimates Tools and Techniques 3 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
  Info. Gathering Tech. Tools and Techniques 2 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
  Information Mgmt. Systems Tools and Techniques 4 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 1 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
  Inspection Tools and Techniques 1 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
  Inspections and audits Tools and Techniques 3 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Interpersonal skills Tools and Techniques 1 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
  Interviews Tools and Techniques 1 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
  Issue log Process Outputs 1 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
    Process Inputs 4 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 3 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
  Leads and lags Tools and Techniques 5 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 6 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
  Make or buy analyis Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
ProPM Logo Make or buy decisions Process Outputs 5 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
  Process Inputs 6 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Mangement Skills Tools and Techniques 3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
Market research Tools and Techniques 3 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Meetings Tools and Techniques 3 Close Project or Phase Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Direct and Manage Project Work Plan management Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 8 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 6 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Plan Risk Management Plan management Risk Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Tools and Techniques 3 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
Tools and Techniques 3 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
  Milestones list Process Outputs 3 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 4 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
  Modeling techniques Tools and Techniques 4 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
  Multi-Crit. Dec. Analysis Tools and Techniques 5 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
ProPM Logo Negotiation Tools and Techniques 2 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
Networking Tools and Techniques 2 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
Observation and conversation Tools and Techniques 1 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Observations Tools and Techniques 7 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
organizational process assets Process Inputs 5 Develop Project Charter Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Process Inputs 7 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 4 Develop Project Management Plan Plan management Integration Management  
Process Inputs 4 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Process Inputs 5 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 3 Close Project or Phase Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Process Inputs 5 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Inputs 4 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Process Inputs 4 Define Scope Execute Scope Management  
Process Inputs 5 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 6 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Process Inputs 4 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Process Inputs 4 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 13 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 10 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 8 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 7 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 4 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Process Inputs 4 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Process Inputs 7 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 9 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 8 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
ProPM Logo Process Inputs 4 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
Process Inputs 4 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
Process Inputs 7 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 6 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 5 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Process Inputs 4 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
Process Inputs 4 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Process Inputs 4 Plan Risk Management Plan management Risk Management  
Process Inputs 13 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 5 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 6 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 9 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 8 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 4 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
Process Inputs 4 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
Process Inputs 4 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
  Org. Chts. & Pos. Descriptions Tools and Techniques 1 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
  Org. Proc. Assets updates Process Outputs 2 Close Project or Phase Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Process Outputs 5 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Outputs 6 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Process Outputs 6 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Process Outputs 4 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
Process Outputs 8 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Outputs 5 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Outputs 4 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Process Outputs 5 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
ProPM Logo Process Outputs 5 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Process Outputs 2 Close Procurements Initiate and Close Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 5 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 5 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
Process Outputs 5 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
Organizational theory Tools and Techniques 3 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
  Outputs/Other Processes Process Inputs 2 Develop Project Management Plan Plan management Integration Management  
  Parametric estimating Tools and Techniques 3 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
  Payment systems Tools and Techniques 5 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Performance reporting Tools and Techniques 5 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Performance reviews Tools and Techniques 1 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
  Personnel assesment tools Tools and Techniques 7 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Pre-assignment Tools and Techniques 1 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Prec. Diag. Method  PDM Tools and Techniques 1 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
  Prob. & Imp. Matrix Tools and Techniques 2 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Process analysis Tools and Techniques 3 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
  Process improvement plan Process Outputs 2 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
    Process Inputs 2 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
  Procurement Audits Tools and Techniques 1 Close Procurements Initiate and Close Procurement Managment  
  Procurement Docs. Process Outputs 3 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
    Process Inputs 11 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 2 Close Procurements Initiate and Close Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 2 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 2 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
ProPM Logo Process Inputs 2 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
Procurement Mgmt. Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
  Process Inputs 1 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 1 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
Procurement Negotiations Tools and Techniques 2 Close Procurements Initiate and Close Procurement Managment  
Tools and Techniques 7 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
  Procurement Per. Reviews Tools and Techniques 2 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Process Outputs 2 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
  Procurement SOW Process Inputs 7 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
  Product analysis Tools and Techniques 2 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
  Proj. doc. updates Process Outputs 5 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Process Outputs 4 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Outputs 4 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Outputs 4 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Outputs 4 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Outputs 2 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Outputs 2 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Outputs 5 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Process Outputs 6 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Outputs 2 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Outputs 3 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Outputs 2 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Outputs 5 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Process Outputs 3 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Outputs 3 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Outputs 3 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
ProPM Logo Process Outputs 7 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Outputs 5 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
Process Outputs 3 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Outputs 3 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Process Outputs 4 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Process Outputs 2 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
Process Outputs 4 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Process Outputs 1 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Outputs 1 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Outputs 2 Plan Risk Responses Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Outputs 6 Conduct Procurements Plan management Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 4 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 4 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
Process Outputs 4 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
Process Outputs 2 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
  Proj. mgmt. info. systems Tools and Techniques 2 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
  Project Management Plan Process Outputs 1 Develop Project Management Plan Plan management Integration Management  
  Process Inputs 1 Close Project or Phase Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Process Inputs 1 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Process Inputs 1 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 1 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 1 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Inputs 1 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Inputs 1 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Process Inputs 1 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
ProPM Logo Process Inputs 1 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Process Inputs 1 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Process Inputs 1 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Process Inputs 1 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Inputs 1 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
Process Inputs 1 Plan HR Management Plan management HR Management  
Process Inputs 1 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Process Inputs 1 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
Process Inputs 1 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Process Inputs 1 Plan Risk Management Plan management Risk Management  
Process Inputs 1 Close Procurements Initiate and Close Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 1 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 1 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
Process Inputs 1 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
  Proj. Mgmt. Plan Updates Process Outputs 4 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Process Outputs 3 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Outputs 3 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Outputs 3 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Outputs 4 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Process Outputs 5 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Outputs 4 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Process Outputs 2 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
Process Outputs 6 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Outputs 3 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Outputs 2 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
ProPM Logo Process Outputs 2 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Process Outputs 3 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Process Outputs 3 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Process Outputs 1 Plan Risk Responses Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Outputs 5 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 3 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 3 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
Process Outputs 3 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
  Proj. Mgmt. Software Tools and Techniques 2 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 8 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
  Proj. Sched. Nw. Diagram Process Outputs 1 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
    Process Inputs 4 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Proj. Scope Statement Process Outputs 1 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
    Process Inputs 2 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 8 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 6 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 5 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
  Project calendars Process Outputs 4 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
    Process Inputs 4 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
  project charter Process Outputs 1 Develop Project Charter Initiate and Close Integration Management  
Process Inputs 1 Develop Project Management Plan Plan management Integration Management  
Process Inputs 2 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Process Inputs 4 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 2 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
ProPM Logo Process Inputs 2 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Process Inputs 2 Plan Cost Management Plan management Cost Management  
Process Inputs 2 Identify Risks Plan management Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 1 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
Project communications Process Outputs 1 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Process Inputs 2 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
  Project documents Process Inputs 5 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
Process Inputs 7 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Inputs 10 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 5 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 3 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
  Project funding requirements Process Outputs 2 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
    Process Inputs 2 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
  Project performance appraisals Process Inputs 2 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Project schedule Process Outputs 2 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
    Process Inputs 2 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Process Inputs 4 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 5 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 5 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
  Project staff assignments Process Outputs 1 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
    Process Inputs 10 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 2 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 2 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
  project statement of work Process Inputs 1 Develop Project Charter Initiate and Close Integration Management  
  Proposal Evaluation Tech. Tools and Techniques 2 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
  Prototypes Tools and Techniques 8 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
ProPM Logo Published estimating data Tools and Techniques 3 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Qual. Mgmt & Control tools Tools and Techniques 1 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
Quality audits Tools and Techniques 2 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
Quality checklists Process Outputs 4 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
  Process Inputs 3 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Quality Con. Measurements Process Outputs 1 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
  Process Inputs 4 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
  Quality metrics Process Outputs 3 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
    Process Inputs 3 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
Process Inputs 2 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
  Quality Mgmt. Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
    Process Inputs 1 Perform Quality Assurance Execute Quality Management  
Process Inputs 4 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
  Quant Risk Ana. & Mod. Tech. Tools and Techniques 2 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Questionnaries & surveys Tools and Techniques 6 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
  Recognition and rewards Tools and Techniques 6 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Records Mgmt. System Tools and Techniques 3 Close Procurements Initiate and Close Procurement Managment  
Tools and Techniques 7 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
  Require. documentation Process Outputs 1 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
    Process Inputs 2 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Inputs 2 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Inputs 3 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 3 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 4 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
Process Inputs 2 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
  Require. tracability matrix Process Outputs 2 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
    Process Inputs 3 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
ProPM Logo Process Inputs 3 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Requirements mgmt. Plan Process Outputs 2 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Process Inputs 2 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
Reserve analysis Tools and Techniques 6 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 6 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 6 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 2 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
  Resource b-down structure Process Outputs 2 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
    Process Inputs 11 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 8 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
  Resource calendars Process Outputs 2 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Process Outputs 3 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
    Process Inputs 6 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 5 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 4 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 6 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 3 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Resource Opt. Techniques Tools and Techniques 3 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 4 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
  Risk audits Tools and Techniques 2 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Monitor and Control Risk Management  
  Risk categorization Tools and Techniques 4 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Risk data quality assessment Tools and Techniques 3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Risk Mgmt Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan Risk Management Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 1 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
ProPM Logo Process Inputs 1 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 1 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 1 Plan Risk Responses Plan execution Risk Management  
Risk Prob.& Imp. Assessment Tools and Techniques 1 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Risk reassessment Tools and Techniques 1 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Risk register Process Outputs 1 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
  Process Inputs 9 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 7 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 5 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 5 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 7 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
Process Inputs   Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Process Inputs 3 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 4 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 2 Plan Risk Responses Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Procurement Management Plan execution Procurement Managment  
  Risk urgency assessment Tools and Techniques 5 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Rolling wave planning Tools and Techniques 2 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
  Sched. Nw. Analysis Tools and Techniques 1 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
  Schedule baseline Process Outputs 1 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
  Schedule compression Tools and Techniques 6 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 7 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
  Schedule data Process Outputs 3 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
    Process Inputs 5 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Schedule forecasts Process Outputs 2 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
    Process Inputs 2 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
ProPM Logo Schedule Mgmt. Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan Schedule Management Plan management Time Management  
Process Inputs 1 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 1 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 1 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 1 Estimate Activity Resources Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 1 Sequence Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 3 Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Scheduling tool Tools and Techniques 7 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 8 Develop Schedule Plan execution Time Management  
  Scope baseline Process Outputs 1 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 2 Define Activities Plan execution Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 2 Determine Budget Plan execution Cost Management  
Process Inputs 6 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 2 Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Plan execution Risk Management  
  Scope Mgmt.Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan Scope Management Plan management Scope Management  
Process Inputs 1 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 1 Create WBS Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 1 Define Scope Plan execution Scope Management  
  Seller proposals Process Inputs 4 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
  Seven basic quality tools Tools and Techniques 1 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Tools and Techniques 3 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
  Source selection criteria Process Outputs 4 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
    Process Inputs 3 Conduct Procurements Execute Procurement Managment  
ProPM Logo Stakeholder analysis Process Inputs 1 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
Stakeholder Mgmt. Plan Process Outputs 1 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
  Process Inputs 3 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 1 Manage Stakeholder Engagement Execute Stakeholder Managment  
Stakeholder register Process Outputs 1 Identify Stakeholders Initiate and Close Stakeholder Managment  
  Process Inputs 5 Collect Requirements Plan execution Scope Management  
Process Inputs 2 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
Process Inputs 2 Plan Communications Management Plan management Communications Management  
Process Inputs 3 Plan Risk Management Plan management Risk Management  
Process Inputs 9 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
Process Inputs 7 Plan Procurement Management Plan management Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 2 Plan Stakeholder Management Plan management Stakeholder Managment  
  Statistical sampling Tools and Techniques 2 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Tools and Techniques 6 Plan Quality Management Plan management Quality Management  
  Strat. For Neg. Risks or Threats Tools and Techniques 1 Plan Risk Responses Plan execution Risk Management  
  Strat. For Pos. Risks or Opps. Tools and Techniques 2 Plan Risk Responses Plan execution Risk Management  
  SWOT analysis Tools and Techniques 6 Identify Risks Plan execution Risk Management  
  Team performance assesments Process Outputs 1 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 3 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Team-building activities Tools and Techniques 3 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Technical Per. Measurements Tools and Techniques 4 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
  Three-point estimating Tools and Techniques 4 Estimate Activity Durations Plan execution Time Management  
Tools and Techniques 5 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
  To complete Per. Ind. TCPI Tools and Techniques 3 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
  Training Tools and Techniques 2 Develop Project Team Execute HR Management  
  Validated changes Process Outputs 2 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
    Process Inputs 4 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
ProPM Logo Variance analysis Tools and Techniques 1 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Variance and trend analysis Tools and Techniques 3 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Vendor bid analysis Tools and Techniques 9 Estimate Costs Plan execution Cost Management  
Verified deliverables Process Outputs 3 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
  Process Inputs 4 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
  Virtual teams Tools and Techniques 4 Acquire Project Team Execute HR Management  
  work performance data S Process Outputs 2 Direct and Manage Project Work Execute Integration Management  
Process Inputs 4 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Inputs 5 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Inputs 3 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Process Inputs 3 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Process Inputs 4 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Inputs 4 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Process Inputs 3 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Process Inputs 6 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
Process Inputs 2 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
  Work Performance Info. Process Inputs 5 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Outputs 1 Control Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Outputs 3 Validate Scope Monitor and Control Scope Management  
Process Outputs 1 Control Schedule Monitor and Control Time Management  
Process Outputs 1 Control Costs Monitor and Control Cost Management  
Process Outputs 4 Control Quality Monitor and Control Quality Management  
Process Outputs 1 Control Communications Monitor and Control Communications Management  
Process Outputs 1 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management  
Process Outputs 1 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
Process Outputs 1 Control Stakeholder Engagement Monitor and Control Stakeholder Managment  
  Work performance reports Process Outputs 2 Monitor and Control Project Work Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 2 Perform Integrated Change Control Monitor and Control Integration Management  
Process Inputs 5 Manage Project Team Execute HR Management  
Process Inputs 2 Manage Communications Execute Communications Management  
Process Inputs 4 Control Risks Monitor and Control Risk Management
Process Inputs 5 Control Procurements Monitor and Control Procurement Managment  
ProPM Logo © 2014-2017 www.propm.org       space ProPM Logo